A Review of Asian and African Elephant Gastrointestinal Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology

Elephant Gastrointestinal Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology

Authors

  • Whitney Greene, D.V.M., M.S. Buttonwood Park Zoo
  • Ellen S. Dierenfeld, Ph.D.
  • Susan Mikota, D.V.M.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.19227/jzar.v7i1.329

Keywords:

African elephant, Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, gastrointestinal, Loxodonta africana, nutrition, pathology, pharmacology, physiology

Abstract

Elephants are susceptible to a variety of gastrointestinal problems. Knowledge of elephant nutrition and gastrointestinal anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology is essential for successful treatment, especially because diagnostic options are limited. The horse is considered the most appropriate model for extrapolation to the elephant. While similarities do exist, elephant-specific information is needed, especially in the areas of nutritional requirements. This review seeks to present the current state of knowledge regarding the elephant gastrointestinal system and encourage research in those areas where information is questionable or lacking.

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Published

2019-01-31

How to Cite

Greene, W., Dierenfeld, E. S., & Mikota, S. (2019). A Review of Asian and African Elephant Gastrointestinal Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology: Elephant Gastrointestinal Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology. Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research, 7(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.19227/jzar.v7i1.329

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Section

Review Articles

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